Complete list of labels

Last update: Friday, June 23, 2017 (16:48:00)

Part-of-speech labels

Nominals and pronominals

EX             existential pronoun                 hara ‘this’

N              Common noun, singular               huma ‘thing’

NS             Common noun, plural                 adamash ‘people’

NPR            Proper noun, singular               Muusa ‘Musa’

NPRS           Proper noun, plural                

PRO            Personal pronoun                    iza ‘he/she/it’

PRO$           Possessive pronoun                  cynan ‘his/her/its’

PRO-OBL        Adjectivized pronoun                caergarchu ‘from them’

PRO-RFL        Reflexive pronoun                   shaa ‘himself’

PRO-RCP        Reciprocal pronoun

Adjectives and Adverbs

ADJ            Adjective                           dika ‘good’

ADJR           Comparative adjective               dikaxuo ‘better’

ADJN           Adjective derived from noun         ghaalara ‘from the city’

ADJNP          Adjective derived from NPR         

ADV            Adverb                              ch’oogha ‘very’

RP             Adverbial particle                  dwa ‘away’, swa 'hither'

RP-MIR         Mirative clitic                     iza-q ‘he-MIR’


D              Demonstrative, near                 hara, i

(D?            Demonstrative, remote               -)

D-OBL          Demonstrative, oblique              qechu

D-CMP          Demonstrative, comparative          cul

DS             one another                         horsh

DS-ERG         Substantivized demonstrative        qiechaara, qaara

DS-MAT         Substantivized demonstrative        vovshiex

D+P            Demonstrative + postposition        cundeela

Quantifiers and numerals

Q              Quantifier                          hoora 'every'

Q-OBL          Quantifier, oblique                 duqaxjolchu ‘many’

QR             Comparative quantifier              ?

QS             Superlative quantifier              ?

NUM            Numeral, singular                   shi’ ‘two’

NUMS           Numeral, plural                     ezarnash ‘thousands’

ADV+NUM        Adverbial + number                  tq’ex ‘about twenty’

NUM-ADJ        Adjectivized number                 pxye’algha ‘fifth’

NUM-OBL        Adjectivized number, oblique        pxye’alghachu ‘fifth’


WPRO           Wh-pronoun                          hwaan ‘who-ERG’

WADJ           Wh-adjective                        mylxa ‘which’

WADJ-OBL       Wh-adjective – oblique              mylxachu ‘which’

WADV           Wh-adverb                           muuxa ‘how’, miel ‘how (much)’


VB             Infinitive                          diesha ‘read’

VB-PRP         Purpose infinitive                  diesharhwama

VB+N-NOM       Verbal noun (mazdar)                dieshar

VB+N-ERG       Verbal noun - inflected             diesharuo

VB+P           Until form                          diesshalc

               Before form                         diesshalie

               As-much-as form                     diesshal


VBP            Present tense                       dyeshu

VBPS           Present subjunctive/desider.        dyeshiila,lojla

VBP+P          Present conditional - real          dieshahw

               Present conditional - irrealis      dieshahwaara

VBP+ADV        Adverbial form of present           ma-dyesshu

VBP+CONJ       Conjunctive present                 dyeshii

VBP+WH         Question, present tense             dyeshii

VBP+C          Subordinated present tense          dyeshii


VBD-N          Past tense on -na                   dieshna ‘how’

VBD-N+CONJ     Conjunctive past tense              dieshnii

VBD-R          Past tense on –ira                  diishira

VBD-REM        Remote past tense                   dieshniera

VBDI/VBD-IMP   Imperfective past tense             dyeshura

VBD+P          Past conditional - real             dieshniehw

               Past conditional - irrealis         dieshniehwaara

               Past conditional                    dieshniehw

               When past                           dieshcha

VBD+WH         Question past tense                 dieshnii


VBI            Imperative (general)                diesha

               Very polite imperative              dieshahwaara

               Polite imperative – singular        dieshahwa

               Polite imperative – plural          dieshash

               Insisting imperative                dieshal


VBF            Future tense                        dyeshur

VBF-NOM        Nominalized future                  dyeshurg


VAGP           Present predicative participle      dyeshush

VAGA           Present attributive participle      dyeshu


VANA           Past attributive participle         dieshna, dieshnachu

VANA-ERG       Substantivized attributive ptcp     dieshnachuo

VANP           Past predicative participle         dieshna


VAFP           Future predicative participle       dyeshun

VAFA           Future attributive participle       dyeshun



AX             Infinitive                          xila ‘happen, be’

AX+N-NOM       Verbal noun (mazdar)                xilar

AX+N-ERG       Verbal noun - inflected             xilaruo


AXP            Present tense                       xylu

AXP+P          Present conditional                 xilahw

AXPS           Present subjunctive/desider.        xylda, xyliila


AXD-N          Past tense on -na                   xilla

AXD-R          Past tense on –ira                  xilira

AXD+P          Past conditional                    xilliehw

AXD+ADV        Past ‘just as’                      ma-xillara


AXI            Imperative                          xila

AXI+P          Until form                          xillalc

               Before form                         xillalie

               As-much-as form                     xillal


AXF            Future tense                        xir

AXF-NOM        Nominalized future form             xirg

Verb “be”

BEP            Present tense                       du

BEP+P          Present conditional                 delahw

BEP+P          Present conditional irrealis        delahwaara

BEP+P          Present desiderative irrealis       delara

BEPS           Present subjunctive/desider.        -


BED            Past tense                          dara


BAGA           Present attributive participle      dolu

BAGA-OBL       Present attributive ptcp inflected dolchu

BAGA-NOM       Substantivized prs. ptcp            derg

BAGA-ERG       Substantivized prs. Ptcp inflected dolchuo


BAGP           Present predicative participle      dolush


NEG+BEP        Negated present tense               daac

NEG+BEP+P      Present negated conditional         daacahw


NEG+BED        Negative past tense                 daacara


NEG+BAGP       Neg. present pred. participle       doocush


NEG+BAGA       Neg. present attr. Participle       doocu

NEG+BAGA-NOM   Substantivized neg. prs. Attr. Ptcp doocurg


FP             Focus particle                      a ‘focus’

NEG+FP         Negative focus particle             ma ‘not’ (in imperatives)

                                                   a (when negating something)

NEG            Negator                             ca ‘not’

P              Postposition                        dyezna ‘connected’

PRT            Doubt particle                      tie ‘DOUBT’

               Believe particle                    tiehwa, tiesha

Syntactic labels

Types of IP

IP-MAT         Main clause, matrix clause

IP-SUB         finite subordinate clause (under a CP!!!)

IP-IMP         Imperatives

IP-INF         infinitival clause

IP-INF-(SBJ)   clause headed by a “mazdar”

IP-PPL         participal clause (past or present)

IP-MAT-SPE     Direct speech IP

IP-MAT-QUE     Question clause (if there is no evidence for a C)

Types of CP

CP-ADV         Adverbial clause

CP-CLF         cleft

CP-CMP         comparative

CP-DEG         degree complement

CP-EXL         exclamative

CP-FRL         free relative (under an NP usually)

CP-QUE         question (direct or indirect)

CP-REL         relative clause

               NB: the RC is headed by an attributive ptcp.

               If ommitted, then an empty category is used.

CP-THT         complement clause


NP             noun phrase

Structure: [… N]                              

Functional labels for NPs:

-SBJ       subject

-OB1       direct object

-OB2       indirect object

-OB3       locational/directional argument

-POS       possessive

-VOC       vocative

-LOC       locative

-TMP       temporal

-COM       comitative (‘I cooked the meal _with Mary_’)

-CPL       complement

-INS       instrumental (I cut _with a knife_)

-PRT       partitive

-ADR       addressee-directed dative

-MAN       manner (‘I said it _in the Chechen language’)

Note: functional labels are ommitted inside conjoined NPs


PP             postpositional phrase

Structure: [NP-OB P/ADV]

Functional labels: locative (LOC), temporal (TMP), other (not marked)


ADVP           adverbial phrase

Structure: [… ADV]. Should be headed by IP/CP and/or have dependents.

Functional labels: -TMP, -LOC, -DIR.


ADJP           adjectival phrase

Structure: only if an ADJ takes a complement or is a part of a predicate,

it heads an ADJP.

Functional labels: -PRD (predicatively used ADJP)


CONJP          conjunction phrase

Structure: XP[ … CONJP[ XP[ … ] ] ]


NUMP           numeral phrase

Structure: [ NUM ]

Each numeral should be under a NUMP.

Complex numerals are treated as one NUMP: [ NUM … NUM ].


PP             Postpositional phrase

QP             Quantifier phrase

WADJP          wh- adjectival phrase

WADVP          wh- adverbial phrase

WNP            wh- noun phrase

WPP            wh- postpositional phrase

WQP            wh- quantifier phrase

Empty categories

*exp*          empty expletive subject

*con*          empty subject elided under conjunction

*pro*          other empty subject

*T*-n          trace of relativized constituent

*ICH*-n        dislocation (interpret constituent here)

*MPH*-n        one morpheme of constituent "n" is interpreted here

Extended tags

Case (marked on N, NS, NPR, NPRS, PRO, D, ADJ, ADJN, ADJNP)

-ALL           allative

-DAT           dative

-ERG           ergative

-GEN           genitive

-INS           instrumental

-LOC           locative

-NOM           nominative (=absolutive)

-SRC           source, ablative

-THR           via, through


-MIR           mirativity                          iza-q 'he-MIR'

-ADR           addressee directed dative

-INT           intensification/focus               iza-m 'he-INT'